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Human beings have achieved the unthinkable by managing to live in different types of habitats on the planet, starting from scorching deserts where water is hardly available, to rough mountainous terrains. You would come across people in the Himalayas, isolated islands, seashores, or mangroves.

Lands with extremely low temperatures are one of the arrays of habitats man have made their residence. The article covers the seven coldest countries across the world. Think twice before visiting these places, especially if you are not fond of the winters.

However, if you are fond of the snow and cold weather, then these handpicked nations are just meant for you. However, note that the climate can be extremely unpredictable in all these places.

1. Antarctica

It is the world’s coldest continent, as is known by the fact. Vostok is one of the few cities in this continent where a team of scientists has been working day in and day out inside an extremely isolated research station of the world. Vostok is set around one thousand km from the South Pole.

The city happens to be the most inhospitable and driest localities in the world. Here, temperatures can go down to up to around minus 128-129 degree Celsius. So, it is hardly surprising that it is at the top of our list for the coldest places in the world.

The region is covered in snow throughout the year. The excessively high speed of the wind, lack of proper drinking water, shelter, or food, makes it one of the planet’s most inhospitable locations. Canada Glacier in Antarctica is popular for being the world’s most beautiful glaciers.

2. Canada

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Contrary to Greenland, Canada boasts lakes and greenery in abundance despite being set in the world’s extreme north. Every winter, most of the places in Canada get snowfall. The temperature in this country can go up to forty degrees below 0, thus making it one of the world’s coldest countries.

The country’s air is extremely moist, which makes the freezing climate somewhat tolerable. Similar to many other countries situated in the northern parts of the world, Canada is known for its periods of extreme sunlight and extreme darkness.

Although Canada is one of the world’s coldest countries in the world, it also happens to be among the most visited ones on the planet. Yellowknife, which is the capital of Northwest Territories in Canada, has a population of more than 20m000 residents.

The temperature here can go down to minus thirty-two degrees Celsius. Thus, it is very tough for humans to survive in such extreme conditions. Sang is another Canadian city, which also records excessively low temperatures during the winters. For instance, the lowest temperature here can be about -60 degrees Celsius.

The coldest nation in North America, Canada’s coldest recorded temperature ever was at -63 degrees Celsius in Snag in 1947. Although several places in the northern part of this country are relatively temperate or cold all through the year, certain places in this country also have quite high temperatures in the summers.

In Canada, some other places, which are considered to be freezing and have recorded low temperatures are Bassano Dam located in Alberta, Lillooet, Lytton, and Fort Smith.

3. Kazakhstan

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Kazakhstan, a part of the erstwhile Soviet Union, is now an independent country and situated inside the Arctic Circle. Kazakhstan is known for its extremely uneven terrain and the temperature here keeps changing based on the altitude of a place.

The country has several such regions, which are permanently covered in ice. Winters are that time of the year when the temperature here dips below degrees Celsius. The residents of this country have been practicing some intriguing survival strategies. For example, ice fishing is one of these survival tactics to cope up with the freezing cold in one of the world’s coldest countries.

The country’s capital city features temperatures in the range of -30 to -35 degrees Celsius during the winter. Astana has a population of more than 800,000 residents. It happens to be the world’s 2nd coldest capital, right after Mongolia’s capital Ulaanbaatar.

Kazakhstan is another such country in Central Asia, which is known for its harsh, cold winters. Here, the temperatures can dip as low as about -30 degrees Celsius. This type of temperature is usual in many valleys, which are known for its snow covering the mountain slopes and the landscapes. The winters in this country usually last for the months of December and February.

4. Mongolia

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Mongolia is a country located south of countries like Kazakhstan and Russia. This Central Asian country is known for its scattered mountain ranges, which make its climate even more freezing cold. The high peaks in the country stop the cold winds that arrive from the North. However, that leads to heavy snowfall in Mongolia. The temperature in the country usually dips to as low as -20 degrees Celsius during winter.

The country has several nomadic tribes and most of them reside in the mountains. These tribes have beautifully adjusted their lifestyle according to the country’s extreme temperatures. Thus, they manage to survive in this excessively cold environment.

However, think of what the people will be going through when there are -41 degrees Celsius temperature in a city. That is what the temperature was like in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, in 2015.

While it is true that the 1.3 million population of this city has now got adapted to the harsh temperatures in winter, air pollution is another big problem. The high pollution rate in the air has been affecting the locals’ health badly.

It is another of those countries where the temperature keeps varying throughout the year. The country is known for its warm summers and cold winters. Züüngovi, in a place called Uvs Province, had recorded the coldest temperature in the country in December 1976.

As the winters can be usually harsh and long in Mongolia, the nomadic tribes can be forced to put up camps. They tend to live at the same locations for a prolonged time. The temperature hovers between -20 degrees Celsius and -45 degrees Celsius in winters.

5. Russia

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Russia happens to be one of the world’s largest countries and spans across two continents – Europe and Asia. Many places in this country are freezing all through the year. Even summers here can be freezing, with temperatures falling below 0 degrees.

For instance, Siberia’s northernmost region is covered in snow throughout the year. The region was mostly used to send prisoners by the Communist ruling party of the country for many years. Winters in Russia are known for their ruthlessness and have rescued the nation from multiple attacks by invaders.

Russia is also regarded as the world’s coldest country for recording the lowest temperature ever. Oymyakon and Verkhoyansk, in a region called the Sakha Republic, are known to record excessive cold temperatures of -67.8 degrees Celsius.

Other cities, including Yatusk in this country, are incredibly cold. All these above-mentioned three cities are known to experience some of the worst possible winters.

6. Greenland

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Do not get confused with the name of this country as you can rarely come across anything green here. This huge northern landmass is one of the planet’s coldest nations and is encircled by water bodies from all its sides. Greenland also happens to be one of those nations with the longest coastlines.

There is no respite from the freezing cold even in the summer, as it also features subzero temperatures. The country is known to have excessively long nights or days based on the season. For instance, summers can have up to twenty-two hours of sunlight. On the other hand, there can be just three hours of sunshine during winters.

This autonomous country is a part of the Kingdom of Denmark but happens to have a self-governance system. The lowest temperature the world’s largest island ever recorded was -66.1 degrees Celsius in 1954.

In 2019, the country had an estimated population of 56, 681, and most of them happened to have Danish or Inuit origin. Meanwhile, the country’s maximum temperature ever recorded was 30.1 degrees Celsius. As there is a significant distinction between winter and summer, it is crucial for the people living here to be ready to sustain in all seasons.

7. Sweden

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Sweden’s northern part features a mild summer climate while winters are very cold, with snow covering its landscapes for many months at a stretch. Malgovik in Västerbotten County had recorded -53 degrees Celsius, the lowest ever temperature in the country.

It is usual in Sweden to have temperatures hovering around minus 40 degrees Celsius during winter. However, temperatures in the country’s southern and middle parts are typically much lower.

Final thoughts

People who are residing in such cold countries need to make significant adjustments to their clothing, diet, and lifestyle. There are also changes in their physiology in terms of their skin color, the oxygen level in the blood, or even facial structure, which evolved across centuries. In countries with such low temperatures, it is extremely difficult to get the day to day jobs, and shelter, clothing, food, and traveling are very tough.